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Study and Analysis of the Electric Power Generated from Photovoltaic Panels in the City of Kirkuk

Waad Mohammed Khidir
Republic of Iraq               
University of Kirkuk
College of Sciences
Department of physics     
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Abstract
 
The thesis introduces some measured data for the available maximum dc-electrical output power from some 17 PV-panels, for the period of nine months (January -2013 to September-2013) at the University of Kirkuk in the city of Kirkuk-Iraq (35.47 ºN, 44.39ºE). Different mounting layouts (vertical, tilted, and horizontal), different cleaning schedules (daily, weekly, monthly, without cleaning), different tracking procedures (1-axis, and 2-axis) are taken to consideration. The results are discussed in terms of the known processes in the field of solar energy.  
           A horizontal panel was raised 2m above the roof (H2), it was found better than those mounted directly above the floor (HA) especially as we  are approaching summer. The raised panel (H2) has the same output power as the (HA) in winter season but exhibits a slightly higher output (about 9%) when the approaching spring season(March), and 14% when approaching the summer season (June) and 8% when approaching the autumn season (September) . It was found that the panel tilted at local altitude of  about 35o outperforms both the vertically and horizontally mounted panels. Switching between HA and VS orientations and/or varying the tilt angle could be used as a control parameter to regulate the input to a PV-Power-Plant (Generator) and hence to regulate the output. 
           In February during clear sky days the 2-axis tracking (2T) has about 20% higher output than 1-axis tracking (1T) and the latter has an output higher than the fixed 35o tilt by about 10%. However, in June these differences become less, 2T gives about 4% higher output than 1T and the latter gives about 8% higher output compared to the fixed tilt panel. In September  these differences become large, 2T gives about 7% higher output than 1T and the latter gives about 8.5% higher output compared to the fixed tilt panel .  
Abstract 
II  
 The difference between daily cleaning and no-cleaning is almost 17% as we are approaching the summer season, In September the daily cleaning has about 4.6% higher output than weekly cleaning and the latter has an output higher than the monthly cleaning by about 4.5%  and the latter has an output higher than the no-cleaning by about 14.5% and the daily cleaning has about 23.6% higher output than no-cleaning, the difference is much lower during winter months where the natural rain renders the effect of cleaning less pronounced. 
The effect of the environmental factors such as ambient temperature , panel temperature , relative humidity and wind speed were investigated and their effects were discussed . 
         Theoretical empirical  equation is suggested to represent the output power from a PV-panel in an attempt to simplify design and analysis of PV-systems . An example project is discussed in the thesis where the experimental data for the output power and energy yield per unit area is used and compared with the plot of the suggested empirical equation . 


THESIS CHAPTER SCHEME

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1- Cover
2- Abstract I-II
3- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
4- List of Contents III-V
5- List of Figures VIII-X
6- List of Symbols and Abbreviations VI-VII
7- List of Tables XI 
8- Chapter One General Introduction 1-30
9- Chapter Two Solar Radiation 31-44
10- Chapter  Three Photovoltaic  Technology 45-74
11- Chapter Four Experimental Part 75-83
12- Chapter Five Results and Discussion 84-113
13- Chapter Six Conclusions and Suggestions
14- Appendix 124-132
15- References 116-123
 

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